means avoiding sex. The definition of sex varies and for some
is defined as penis-in-vagina intercourse. Others may include
oral sex, anal sex, or even kissing and touching. The way
in which sex is defined determines which activities to avoid.
inherited in the gene’s from one’s parents, but
from the environment.
period of intense emotional and intellectual development between
childhood and adulthood, when boys and girls go through the
physical changes also known as puberty.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is clinically defined
by a CD4 count of less than 200. The CD4 cell count is a laboratory
marker of the strength of a persons immune system. It is not
a specific illness but rather a collection of illnesses that
affect the body as a result of a weakened immune system.
of the anus by the penis. Men practice anal intercourse with
women and with other men. HIV is twice as likely to be transmitted
in unprotected anal intercourse as in vaginal intercourse.
HIV Clinic Survey (ANC)
and surveillance of the epidemic is primarily through the
Antenatal Clinic Survey which involves a series of annual
unlinked, anonymous HIV surveys among women attending antenatal
clinics of the Public Health Services. The survey uses pregnant
women to gain estimates of HIV prevalence and to track trends
of HIV infections over time. The ANCs have limitations in
estimating national prevalence as they are limited to currently
or sexually active pregnant women of a limited age group (15-49).
proteins produced by certain white blood cells to fight against
specific organisms such as a particular virus or bacterium
or other disease agent or substance.
regard to HIV this means someone’s blood contains antibodies
to HIV. Although the person may have no signs of disease,
they can infect others through sex or blood, and they are
likely to develop AIDS at some stage. See also HIV positive.
substance which, when introduced into the body, causes a specific
antibody to be produced. The antibodies neutralize or block
the antigens, so providing protection against micro-organisms
that have specific antigens. The term antigen comes from antibody
direct antigen test, tests for the virus itself, not antibodies.
These are expensive and complex and generally not available
in many countries. See also viral load test.
(retro) viral (ARV)
drugs (ARVs) are not a cure for HIV/AIDS but do prolong
the lives of those infected with HIV. These inhibit the replication
of the reverse transcriptase and protease, which are two enzymes
that are essential for HIV replication. In resource poor settings
the onset of ARV treatment is usually medically recommended
once the CD4 cell count of the person living with HIV/AIDS
is 200 or below. To be effective a combination of three or
more ARVs are taken, this is commonly referred to as Highly
Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). These include nucleoside
analogues, reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), non-nucleoside
reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), and protease inhibitors
(PI). See also combination therapy, non – nucleoside
reverse transcriptase inhibitors nucleoside analogues and
Service Organisation: usually a community - based and non-governmental
organization which undertakes one or more of the
following tasks: educating the public about HIV transmission
and means of protecting oneself; providing pre – and
post – test counseling; and care of individuals who
have contracted HIV or developed AIDS.
to the period when there is an absence of clinical symptoms
of HIV infection, such as fevers, weight loss and oral thrush
or opportunistic infections. The asymptomatic phase varies
in length from individual to individual and among some last
10 years or longer.
presence of bacteria in the blood
is direct assistance from one country to another country.
Bilateral Agencies include: The United States Agency for International
Development (USAID), the United Kingdoms Department for International
of the blood, e.g. red blood cells, platelets, plasma or clotting
factors that can be separated from whole blood to meet specific
process of testing of blood to see if it contains infectious
agents capable of being transmitted to those who receive the
definition varies from sex with an unknown person we don't
know to any sexual activity with a non-regular partner. In
epidemiological terms it is where an individual has more than
one sexual partner in a 12 – month period.
cells, also known as helper T-cells, are a type of lymphocyte,
which is a white blood cell that plays an important role in
the immune system. Lymphocytes control the body's ability
to recognize and fight infections and cancers. CD4 lymphocytes
help to identify, attack, and destroy specific bacteria, fungi,
and other germs that infect the body. In addition, they regulate
the production of antibodies (proteins that
fight infections) and cytokines (chemicals
that regulate other immune functions). CD4 cells are produced
in the spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus gland, and they circulate
throughout the body in the bloodstream. HIV binds to the surface
of CD4 cells, enters them, and either reproduces immediately,
killing them in the process, or remains in a resting state,
reproducing when the cell becomes active.
the amount of CD4 or T-helper cells in the blood. The CD4
test measures the number of CD4 cells in a blood sample. Normal
CD4 counts in adults range from 500 to 1200 cells per cubic
millimeter (mm3) of volume. The CD4 cell count is a laboratory
marker of the strength of your immune system. It helps to
determine how advanced your HIV disease is (staging) and to
predict your risk of complications (prognosis).
female genital mutilation
operation that removes the foreskin from the penis. Studies
suggest that circumcised men are less likely to contract and
transmit HIV than men who are uncircumcised. Some people believe
that male circumcision, though it has fewer harmful consequences
than female circumcision, should also be described as genital
a research study used to assess the benefits and risks of
a new vaccine or treatment.Human testing consists of 3 phases.
Phase I Trial. Measures mainly the safety,
and side effects as well as early immune response (immunogenicity)
of various doses of the test vaccine in a small number (usually
60 or less) of HIV-negative, low-risk, adult volunteers. It
usually lasts for 12-18 months. Phase II Trial.
These are controlled trials that collect data on the safety,
side effects and efficacy (it’s ability to prevent infection)
of the vaccine as well as dosage and routes of administration.
This phase usually involves between 200 and 500 HIV negative,
adult, volunteers and can last up to 2 years. Phase
III Trial. This is a larger controlled trial to determine
the effectiveness of the vaccine as well as the optimal dosage
and schedule of the vaccine. It involves thousands of HIV-negative,
usually high-risk volunteers and usually lasts for 3 to 4
years.All three phases usually use placebo and control groups
conditions that cause something to occur; e.g. HIV is spread
more easily if there is an STI, so STI is a cofactor of HIV
combinations of anti-HIV drugs are more effective than one
or two ARV drug combinations in preventing disease progression
and death. Triple combination therapy greatly reduces disease
progression and deaths in people living with AIDS. The name
now commonly given to combinations of anti-HIV drugs is HAART
(Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy). Thus a person taking
ARV will take one
a patent holder to be forced to allow others to produce its
product. Compulsory licensing is sanctioned by the World Trade
Organisation under certain conditions such as patent abuse
or in cases of national emergency. means to provisions in
the won the court action against the pharmaceutical industry
allowing the government to issue compulsory licenses to local
companies to produce and import generics.
female condom is a polyurethane sheath that lines the vagina
creating a barrier against the exchange of body fluids. It
comprises of an inner and outer ring. The inner ring at the
closed end is used for insertion and helps to maintain the
device at upper end of the vagina. The larger outer ring remains
outside the vagina and anchors the condom so that the sheath
covers the external genitalia as well as the base of the penis
during intercourse.The female condom is intended to serve
a dual role, offering protection from pregnancy and sexually
transmitted infection (STI). It is estimated to be 95% effective
when used consistently and correctly.
positive results from an HIV antibody test cannot be regarded
as conclusive and should be followed up with confirmatory
tests such as the Western blot and Line immunoassays which
determine whether an initial positive result correctly indicates
an HIV infection.
sheath unrolled over an erect penis. Male condoms are made
from latex or polyurethane to prevent conception and transmission
of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
organisms that cause some diseases like pneumococcal pneumonia
have special outer coats that disguises it so that an immature
immune system, like that of an infant, cannot recognise them.
Conjugate vaccines use special proteins that the immature
immune system can recognize and attach them to the organism.
These vaccines are used to prevent meningitis.
method that prevents a woman from conceiving a child, such
as the pill and diaphragm. Of all contraceptive methods, only
the male and female condoms offer dual protection from infection
with HIV and other STI’s.
direct cost of treatment of HIV/ AIDS includes: doctor’s
fees, test fees (for the HIV antibody test, X –rays,
CD 4 cell count and viral load tests etc), hospital fees,
fees for drugs and other forms of treatment and fees for home
and hospice care. See also indirect costs.
the provision of information and advice. Pre–test counseling
helps the individual to decide whether to take the HIV antibody
test. Post–test counseling provides an opportunity for
those who test HIV – negative to learn how to protect
themselves from future infection, and advises those who test
HIV – positive how to maintain their health and how
to avoid transmitting the virus to others.
phrase that often includes the entirety of what we know as
the adiministration of criminal justice, can encompass several
legal fields: substantive criminal law, criminal procedure,
law enforcement, and penology.
form of inflammation of the brain membrane caused by a fungus
common with AIDS.
virus linked to herpes that may cause blindness in people
Dementia) loss of control of thought, emotion, personality
and behaviour through progressive brain damage cause by HIV,
similar to senile dementia.
of a disease. HIV infection cannot be diagnosed and is only
confirmed by an HIV antibody test. Diagnosis of AIDS may be
made when a patient contracts an opportunistic infection;
where possible, the diagnosis of AIDS should be confirmed,
or eliminated, by an HIV antibody test.
relation to HIV, two test results on one person where one
gives an HIV-positive result and the other an HIV-negative
result. Discordant couple refers to where one partner may
is HIV negative and the other HIV positive.
acid. The genetically material of most living organisms. See
term usually refers to the injection of drugs for recreational
purposes – either drugs produced only for recreational
use, such as heroin, or medicinal drugs injected in combinations
or doses intended for recreational use. Non – sterilized
injecting equipment carries a high risk of transmission
of HIV and other diseases such as Hepatitis.
addition to those which are injected, recreational drugs may
be inhaled (eg cocaine, marijuana, tobacco) injected (e.g.
heroin), eaten, chewed or swallowed (e.g. qat, coca leaf and
“ecstasy”) or drunk (e.g. caffeine, alcohol) to
alter physical sensations and mental attitudes. Medicinal
drugs may also be misused as recreational drugs. Recreational
drugs such as alcohol are likely to make people less likely
to protect themselves during sexual intercourse carry an indirect
risk of HIV transmission.
some cultures, women use substances to reduce or prevent flow
of vaginal fluids during intercourse because their male partners
prefer the sensation of “dry sex”. Dry sex heightens
the risk of HIV transmission as it increases the likelihood
of bleeding especially if a condom is not used.
immunosorbent assay (Elisa Tests): Is an HIV antibody test
which until the introduction of the rapid test was the most
commonly used type of test for screening. ELISA tests are
more expensive than the rapid tests requiring skilled technical
staff, equipment maintenance, and a steady power supply.
inflammation common with AIDS. It may occur during the serio
occurring and widespread at a stable level.
unusual marked increase in cases in a fairly short period
study of the prevalence and spread of infection and disease
(and injury) in populations.
to one’s sexual partner and abstaining from casual sex.
Fidelity only protects an individual from HIV when it is mutual
– i.e. when both partners are faithful to each other.
Also referred to as monogamy.
known as female circumcision. The partial or full removal
of the clitoris, labia minora and labia majora.
describes the socially constructed differences between men
and women and the cultural roles, which they are expected
to fulfill. While sex describes the physical status - whether
an individual has a penis and testicles or breasts and vagina
drugs are copies of brand-name drugs where the patent has
expired or are being made under compulsory license.
is the Basic measure of national economic well-being, including
the total expenditure by national residents, or goods or services
for consumption, investment and government services (over
a period of a year); GDP often under-estimates informal sector
inherited blood disorder affecting males, in which the blood
lacks clotting factor. It can be controlled by injecting a
clotting agent taken from pooled donated blood.
and widespread viral infection of the liver causing jaundice,
transmitted much more easily than HIV through blood and sexual
fluids. It is carried by about 10% of adults in Africa.
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): HIV is a retrovirus which enters
CD4 blood cells, where it converts its RNA into DNA by using
an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase. This allows the
virus to replicate itself. It also weakens the body’s
immune system and eventually leads to the development of AIDS.
confronted with infection, the immune system produces antibodies,
which circulate in the blood to attack the pathogen. With
many diseases, the antibodies overcome the pathogen; in the
case of HIV, antibodies are produced but they do not succeed
in preventing the virus from replicating.
test to confirm whether an individual has HIV antibodies –
and therefore whether they have contracted the virus. A positive
result suggests they have contracted HIV. Where possible,
a second test is generally used to confirm the initial positive
result, this is known as a confirmatory test. See also Rapid
tests, Elisa tests, Confirmatory tests.
no antibodies to HIV, this usually means no HIV is present
but see false negative and window period. Can only be determined
through an HIV antibody test.
antibodies to HIV is the blood and therefore having HIV infection.
See false positive. Babies can be HIV positive because of
the presence of maternal antibodies even if the baby has no
the rights and freedoms of all human beings. They are fundamental
and universal consisting of civil, political, economic, social
and cultural rights.
produced by killing the disease-causing micro-organism with
heat or chemicals, thus making it stable. These types of vaccines
produce a relatively weak immune response and must be given
more than once. e.g. cholera and flu vaccine. The flu vaccine
is given every year also because the flu virus has many different
strains. (See Vaccines)
immune system comprises the body’s defence mechanisms
that protects from disease. These include complex cellular
responses in the lymph and blood. It includes the skin, mucus
membranes, special glands and secretions. HIV primarily affects
cell mediated immunity.
Drug User formerly referred to as intravenous drug user. Intravenous
means into the veins. The term IDU is no longer used because
many individuals who inject drugs inject into a muscle, not
into a vein. Instead today reference is made to injecting
cases of infection in a population within a fixed period (usually
a year).Incidence is always expressed as a number.
period between infection with a virus or pathogen and the
appearance of symptoms, HIV is unusual in that the incubation
period may vary from months to years.
indirect costs of a disease generally include loss of income
from the patient and from those who take off work to care
for the patient, attend their funeral and look after their
dependents. Social costs, which may lead to additional economic
loss, include such items as loss of schooling by those who
care for relatives with the disease and poorer nutrition resulting
from lack of income or labour to gather food and prepare meals.
this is the word most commonly used to describe an individual
who has contracted the HI virus, many organizations representing
people living with HIV/AIDS prefer to avoid the term and use
“living with HIV” instead.
of infecting others. HIV is primarily transmitted through
unprotected sexual intercourse, child birth or contaminated
HIV antibody test should only be undertaken as the result
of informed consent obtained during pre-test counseling –
when the individual fully understands the implications of
the test and the possible impact of the result on their lives.
a manufactured syringe, but the term may refer to any instrument,
such as one made from a ballpoint pen, used to inject drugs.
Failure to thoroughly sterilize injecting equipment between
each use can lead to transmission of HIV and other diseases.
rare type of cancer which starts as pink or dark, flat or
raised marks on the skin which gradually spread; internal
organs may later become infected; it is quite a common opportunistic
infection associated with HIV/AIDS and also occurs unrelated
to AIDS in a mild form in some elderly people.
of inheritance of a widow by the late husbands brother.
grown in a lab to make the disease-causing agent lose its
virulence (the disease-causing ability of a micro-organism).
This type of vaccine needs special handling and storage in
order to maintain its potency, but it only needs to be administered
once. However, there is a possibility that the live organism
may mutate and thus become virulent again. Examples of live-attenuated
vaccines are yellow fever, measles and rubella vaccines.
lymph nodes or glands, felt as lumps in the neck, armpit,
groin and elsewhere. Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy
(PGL) is when the lymph glands around the body are swollen
over a long period of time (at least three months); this is
often a sign of HIV infection, but other longlasting infections
can also cause PGL, and many people with HIV do not have swollen
system of glands found throughout the body which act as filters
for harmful substances and so help fight infection; HIV particularly
collects in the lymph nodes.
Term for tumours in lymphoid tissues.
blood cells that fight infections.
in the immune system that engulf invading organisms.
commonly associated with a particular infection, for instance
Kaposi’s sarcoma is a marker disease for HIV/AIDS.
one’s hand for sexual pleasure, generally to achieve
orgasm (sexual climax). Masturbation can be practiced alone
or on a partner. The chances of transmission of HIV as a result
of masturbation is very minimal.
of the meninges, the membranes covering the brain, cryptococcal
meningitis is common in AIDS.
chemical contained in gel, foam, pessary or film that kills
microbes such as bacteria and viruses. At present research
is being conducted on Microbicides that will act against HIV.
administering of one type of drug. Monotherapy in HIV is generally
not recommended because it can lead to drug resistance and
a faster deterioration of the patient’s state of health.
incidence of a disease.
transmission (Prevention of)
of HIV from a mother living with HIV to her unborn child occurs
in three main stages: While the mother is pregnant, at the
time of birth, or through breastfeeding. Transmission occurs
in 25% to 40 % of cases without prophylactic treatment. Two
forms of regimens are available to prevent mother to child
transmission. In South Africa the most widely used regimen
is the provision of Nevirapine also known as NVP or Viramune,
which is a tablet taken by the women in labour and also administered
to the baby between 24-72 hours after birth. If the mother
takes Zidovudine (AZT) during the pregnancy and refrains from
breastfeeding, transmission rates fall to 10%. Other drugs
are being developed to prevent mother – to – child
transmission - which is also known as perinatal transmission.
An effective PMTCT programme comprises the provision of informed
voluntary counseling and testing, the provision of the drug
and counseling the women concerning feeding options.
organizations such as the United Nations and the European
Union. Multilateral agencies receive their funding through
pledges made by their member states.
recognition of HIV/AIDS as a developmental issue has resulted
in many countries establishing National AIDS Councils (NACs)
which oversees the national response to HIV / AIDS in each
country. The National AIDS Council in most instances is chaired
by the President or Deputy President of a country and comprises
relevant government departments/ministeries, bilateral and
multilateral donors, non – governmental and other organizations,
eg. the South African National AIDS Council (SANAC).
to the first four weeks of life
in the nerves due to infection, disease, drugs or injury.
Peripheral neuropathy, pain in the hands and feet is common
with vitamin deficiency and AIDS.
known by its brand name Viramune, or nickname NVP, Nevirapine
is a non-nucleoside reverse transciptase inhibitor which used
in combination with other drugs may reduce the viral load
and increase the CD4 cell count thereby prolonging the life
of person living with HIV/AIDS. NVP is also used to prevent
the transmission of mother-to-child and is a tablet taken
by the women in labour and administered to the baby between
24-72 hours after birth. Studies in Uganda and South Africa
have also found that NVP is safe and effective.
governmental organizations (NGOs) vary in size, budget and
scope from unpaid volunteers in a small district to large
international institutions. Most NGO’s are non- profit
class of antiretroviral drug. Non- nucleoside reverse transciptase
inhibitors that slows the reproduction of HIV by interfering
with reverse transcriptase, an important viral enzyme. This
enzyme is essential for HIV to incorporate its genetic material
into cells. NNRTI drugs include: Nevirapine, delavirdine (Rescripta),
– penetrative sex
activity, which does not involve penetration of the vagina,
anus or mouth. Non – penetrative sex does not allow
transmission of HIV unless infected semen or vaginal fluid
from one partner come into contact with a cut or lesion on
the other partner’s body.
Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI’s),
target the HIV protein reverse transcriptase preventing the
translation of viral RNA into viral DNA (e.g. AZT, ddl, ddC
infections that attack the body when the immune system is
weakened. People with HIV are prone to contracting many infections
as the immune system weakens. While serious many can be prevented.
The most Commonest opportunistic infections are: Mycobacterium
avium complex (MAC) causing tuberculosis; pneumonia (PCP);
herpes virus; diarrhea; toxoplasmosis.
sex for women is called cunnilingus. Cunnilingus stimulates
the women with the tongue into her vagina. Oral sex for men
is called fellatio. This is when men have their penis sucked,
licked and kissed. Is Practiced by women with men and men
with other men. There is some risk involved in having unprotected
oral sex with a man or a woman. To avoid risks during
oral sex it is important to keep semen and vaginal
fluids out of your mouth, Ensure that your mouth is healthy
and that you don't have bleeding gums, cuts, or mouth sores.
defined by WHO as the active, total care of a patient whose
disease is not responsive to curative treatment. The focus
is upon quality of life rather than on cure or recovery. In
the context of HIV/AIDS palliative care can commence long
before the final stages of AIDS.
global or very widespread epidemic.
living organism that survives by invading the body or another
organism; e.g. parasitic worms, bilharzia.
a brand name drug already sold iin South Africa is simultaneously
imported from another country where it is sold cheaper. Parallel
imported drgs are theoretically the same as the brand product
and may even come from the same plant.
disease- causing micro- organism. Pathogen include viruses
many bacteria, fungi and protozoan.
type of pneumonia only seen in people with weakened immunity
such as AIDS.
lung infections causing coughing and breathing difficulties.
Pneumonia can arise if other infections are not properly treated.
a harmless, non-active substance that is designed to look
like the test product.)
– test counseling
a program of several antiviral drugs, that are taken several
times each day, for at least 30 days, to prevent that a person
becomes infected with HIV following exposure either through
sexual assault or occupational exposure. Following potential
exposure to HIV, PEP treatment needs to be commenced at least
within 72 hours. Prior to the onset of use of PEP an HIV test
should be taken to determine the status of the person concerned.
Information and counselling should be given so as to enable
the person to understand the drugs, the necessity of complying,
the need to practice safer sex and follow-up HIV tests.
based surveys are conducted among the population on a national
scale and have sample sizes large enough to be able to draw
conclusions about the population as a whole. The major national
surveys often have a large enough sample so that the data
can be broken down by province or territory or region or population
sub-group. Estimating HIV prevalence is done through saliva
mother – to- child – transmission
– test counseling
the estimated percentage of the adult population living with
HIV at a specific time, regardless of when infection occurred.
Prevalence is always expressed as a percentage.
or campaigns designed to increase awareness of HIV and the
means of preventing transmission. Prevention programs are
targeted at the general public or at defined audience such
as: young people, sex workers and their clients, migrant labourers
prophylactic prevents the spread of a disease. Prophylaxis
is sometimes also used to mean contraception.
inhibitors are a type of antiretroviral that stops the reproduction
of HIV. Protease inhibitors block a part of HIV called the
protease enzyme. With the protease enzyme blocked, HIV makes
copies of virus that are defective and can't infect new cells.
Studies have shown that taken in combination with at least
two other antiretroviral drugs these drugs, can lower viral
load (the amount of HIV in your blood) and raise T-cell (CD4
cell) counts. Protease Inhibitors include: Indinavir (Crixivan),
Saquinavir (Invirase), Ritonavir (Norvir), Neflinavir (Viracept),
Lopinavir and Ritonavir (Kaletra)
that prevents any semen, vaginal fluids or blood from entering
your bloodstream. Condoms are the most effective way of preventing
HIV transmission. Other preventative measures include: abstinence,
faithfulness to one partner whose HIV status is known to you.
refers to the physical, including sexual, changes that occur
when a child reaches adulthood. See also adolescence.
living with HIV/AIDS, whether or not they have symptoms of
less than 10 minutes to provide a result. These tests have
an internal sample addition control that validates each test
run. In most instances a positive result is indicated by the
appearance of a clearly visible dot or line. A positive result
is confirmed through a confirmatory test.
produced by taking a part of the disease-causing microbe rather
than the whole to create a synthetic antigen that will be
able to produce an immune response. Most HIV candidate vaccines
to date have been subunit vaccines.
produced by using a virus or bacteria (not HIV) as a vector
(carrier) for HIV genetic material. These carriers deliver
the modified microbe to the part of the body that will produce
the desired immune response.
virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
syndrome) is a retrovirus. It is called
HIV for human immunodeficiency virus. Retroviruses
are infectious particles consisting of an RNA genome
packaged in a protein capsid, surrounded
by a lipid envelope. Retroviruses contain
RNA as the hereditary material in place of the more common
DNA. In addition to RNA, retrovirus particles also contain
the enzyme reverse transcriptase (or RNAse),
which causes synthesis of a complementary DNA molecule (cDNA)
using virus RNA as a template.
of HIV transmission can occur in any situation which provides
for the virus to be transmitted - e.g. in an act of unprotected
intercourse or when unscreened blood is transfused.
acid, an organic compound storing genetic information.
sexual activity in which no semen or vaginal fluid enters
another persons body, or full sexual intercourse with a condom
and ideally a microbicide; any sexual activity between non-infected
persons is safe.
process of testing donated blood to see if it contains infectious
agents capable of being transmitted to those who receive the
blood is known as screening.
/ Seminal fluid
penis ejaculates semen which contains sperm, the male contribution
to conception. Infected semen is the primary route through
which men transmit HIV to their sexual partners.
of a key group in the population to gain an indea of the extent
of infection or other problem. E.g. screening of pregnant
women or STI patients for HIV to find out HIV prevalence;
repeat screening at regular intervals indicates trends in
HIV transmission in this population group over time.
HIV infection occurs when HIV first enters the body. The virus
replicates rapidly and reaches peak levels generally associated
with seroconversion characterized by the development of flu
like symptoms. It is estimated that 95 - 99% of individuals
infected with HIV will seroconvert within 6-12 weeks. HIV
can be transmitted during this phase and there is evidence
that the risk of transmission is higher because the number
of viral particles in blood and body fluids is so high.
a specified pathogen in the blood. In the context HIV / AIDS,
seronegative is the same as HIV-negative. This can only be
determined through an HIV antibody test which does not fnd
the presence of HIV/AIDS antibodies within the blood stream.
a specified pathogen in the blood. In the context of HIV/AIDS,
seropositive is the same as HIV positive. This is determined
through a HIV/AIDS antibody test that detects the presence
of HIV/AIDS antibodies in the blood stream.
“state of the blood”. In the context of HIV, the
term indicates whether a person has contracted the virus or
work, often referred to as prostitution, is the exchange of
sexual intercourse or other sexual activity for money or goods.
Both women and men can be sex workers.
activity, alone or with a partner, which involves direct or
indirect stimulation of sexual organs.
see sexual identity as gender, defining one as a male or female.
Others see it as being identical to sexual orientation (the
object of one’s affectional feelings be it opposite
sex, same sex, or both. Other believe that sexual identity
is comprised of four components: biological sex,
gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation.
definition of sexual intercourse varies. Some people consider
only penetrative intercourse (Vaginal/anal) as forms of sexual
intercourse. Condoms are the most effective means of preventing
the transmission of HIV from sexual intercourse.
to an individual’s pattern of sexual attraction In Western
terms, individuals are seen as heterosexual (attracted to
the opposite sex), homosexual (attracted to the same sex)
or bisexual (attracted to both sexes). In other cultures,
sexual identity and sexual orientation are often defined differently.
sexual transmitted infection
STI (also known as sexually transmitted disease or STD) is
any infection transmitted through sexual intercourse. STIs,
which cause lesions or ulcers, such as gonorrhea, increase
the risk of transmitting HIV.
and female condoms are sold through social marketing in many
parts of Africa. This comprises an affordable, subsidized
price and marketing and sales similar to commercial products.
This approach increases sales and helps to remove the stigma
of condoms and sexual intercourse.
cream, gel, foam, film or pessary that kills sperm and so
works as a contraceptive for use with a condom. Some protect
against HIV also (microbicides).
sexually transmitted infection.
is described as a quality that significantly discredits an
individual in the eyes of another. HIV/AIDS related stigma
comes from the powerful combination of shame and fear –
shame because the sex or drug injecting that transmit HIV
are surrounded by taboo and moral judgement and fear because
AIDS is relatively new and considered deadly.
that does not cause disease symptoms but can be detected by
laboratory tests on blood and other tissues.
some cultures the slang term used for older men who pay, directly
or in kind, for the sexual services of younger women, or for
the older women who similarly pay for the sexual services
of younger men.
person with HIV is asymptomatic; a person with AIDS is symptomatic.
to society’s customs and / or laws. Despite taboos,
many sexual practices such as oral and anal intercourse exist
in many, if not all societies.
4 (helper) cells
HIV antibody testing, counseling, rapid tests.
fungal infection often severe in people with HIV/AIDS, causing
a heavy white coating in the mouth, throat or gut or the genital
an inactivated toxin (the harmful substance produced by a
microbe). Many organisms that infect people are not in themselves
harmful. It is the toxins they produce that cause disease.
Scientists have manufactured vaccines that completely stop
the production of these toxins in the body. Toxoids are used
in tetanus and diptheria vaccines.
(ARVs) are the primary method of treating HIV. ARVs inhibit
either of the two enzymes that are essential for HIV replication,
namely, reverse transcriptase and protease. Antiretroviral
drugs do not cure HIV/AIDS but they do prolong the lives of
those infected with HIV.
of three antiretrovirals together as a treatment for AIDS.
bacterial disease of the lungs and sometimes other organs;
common with AIDS. TB is treatable with various antibiotics,
although multi-drug resistant TB (MDRTB) is an increasing
problem world wide.
intercourse is intercourse without use of male or female condom.
Unprotected intercourse can lead to transmission of HIV and
risk behaviours include unprotected sex with multiple partners,
poor and inconsistent male condom usage, dry sex, anal sex,
and sex while infected with sexually transmitted infections.
blood has not been tested for HIV antibodies and may carry
HIV. See also screen.
vaccine is a substance that teaches the body to recognize
and defend itself against bacteria and viruses that cause
disease. A vaccine causes a response from the immune system
(the body’s defence system) preparing it to fight if
exposed to the virus at a later time. A vaccine can cause
the body to stop or disable an invading virus. A vaccine is
not a cure, but ideally prevents infection or slows disease
produced by the mucous membranes - lining – of the vagina.
of a vagina by a penis.
the number of HIV particles in the blood. The total viral
load is the amount of HIV in your blood, lymph nodes, spleen,
and other parts of your body. If your viral load measurement
is high, it indicates that HIV is reproducing, and that the
disease will likely progress faster than if your viral load
the number of HIV particles in the blood. These tests detect
a kind of protein strand called RNA, which is a part of HIV
containing the genes of the virus. Each HIV particle contains
two copies of a molecule called RNA that carries the HIV genes.
The viral load test determines the number of copies of HIV
RNA molecules in a sample of blood.
micro-organism which capable of independent life and reproduction
within a living cell. Most viruses store the genetic information
they need to reproduce in DNA. Retroviruses, such as HIV,
store their genetic information in RNA.
used to define the rapid loss of weight that often accompanies
the development of AIDS.
takes the immune system up to three months to produce antibodies
to HIV that can be measured in the HIV antibody test. During
this window period, an individual tests negative for the virus
but is nevertheless capable of transmitting it to other.